Azmi Bishara considers Religion and secularism in historical context as an introduction to a larger project that began with the study of democracy and forms of religiosity. Indeed, in his earlier work Bishara determined that understanding religiosity in current Arab societies was not possible without studying historical contexts. Later, he found that the difference between forms of religiosity in specific countries and societies is highly determined by the forms of secularization achieved, and which a given society has been exposed to. Thus, Bishara determined that what must first be understood is the difference between religion and religiosity and what distinguishes them as social phenomena. This, he claims, allows one to understand secularism and secularization with greater precision. In the present volume, Bishara studies the religious phenomenon and what distinguishes it from related phenomenon. This is done in order to create the foundations for the second part of the project, which will deal with secularism and secularization.