This paper discusses the concepts of public reason, identity, and religion (more generally, comprehensive doctrine) in the context of John Rawls's political philosophy, and the objections that have been raised to Rawls's views by communitarians and proponents of comprehensive doctrines. The study dwells on the concepts of reasonableness and public reason, and seeks to determine whether these concepts enjoy overriding legitimacy over that of religions and other comprehensive doctrines. In particular, we investigate whether Rawls's "public reason" is no more than liberal reason presenting itself as "public". The study concludes by suggesting that so long as the concept of reasonableness itself is in question, disagreements between supporters of political liberalism and proponents of comprehensive doctrines cannot be resolved through philosophy. Nothing short of profound and enduring historical developments in science, economy, and society can bring about reconciliation between divergent views by crafting or rebuilding concepts, beliefs, and affective and cognitive attitudes toward relevant issues.