During its three sessions held in 1919 and 1920, the Syrian Congress constitutionally represented the population of Syria, giving voice to the socio-political changes then underway. Political parties and blocs were formed within the parliament, which later came to be called “internal” formations. Although they took form within the context of the parliament’s internal dynamics, they were also deeply tied to the socio-political movements active outside of parliament. Syria’s first constitution, set out by the founding fathers of the Modern Arab Nationalist movement, had envisaged such events and given a structured written expression to the political and legal thinking of the movement. The discussions within the Congress centered on the controversial articles within the constitution: the relationship between religion and the state; women’s issues; citizenship and identity; and the relationship between the state’s national character and administrative decentralization. In his analysis, the author argues how as a document, the Constitution proved to be ahead of its time on issues which would be at the heart of later discussions emerging not only in subsequent Syrian constitutional assemblies, but also in the constitutional development of Arab states in general. It also had an impact on the views of political and social elites. In this way, the significance of the first Syrian constitution goes beyond its historical importance.