What is justice in an Arab context? Or what should an Arab theory of justice consist of? In an attempt to answer these questions, this paper investigates the main theories of justice in contemporary Western thought, such as utilitarian, liberal, libertarian, Marxist, communitarian, and feminist theories. It also examines traditional Arab notions of justice, both past and present, and categorizes the forms of justice—verbal, ethical/philosophical, theological, and political/social justice. The paper then argues that the theory of interest that is inspired from our doctrinal tradition, and which is based on the notion of general interest—which implies political and social justice—can be employed to form an Arab theory of social justice, when added to other elements inspired from the main Western theories of justice. Such a theory can be founded on the notion of utility serving the public good, and the liberal tradition that is based on solidarity. An Arab theory of justice should seek to reinforce the principle of the general interest and achieve gender equality by providing an interpretive and creative reading of the religious texts that stresses the notion of equality, even if these texts had been employed in the past to justify unequal and unfair treatment.