This study begins with a cursory look at the Arab scene, focusing on the ongoing constitutional debates and its controversies gripping the region today. In examining the current state of affairs in the region, the author takes the reader on a journey through modern Arab constitutional history that begins with the late Ottoman era and ends in present day. This historical narrative aims at exploring the record of constitutional reforms, the structuring of political systems, and the extent to which the notion of citizenship is rooted in the respective Arab countries. This narrative goes beyond the historical roots of Arab constitutional thought, and examines Arab political thought – based on the premise that it was the region’s political culture that fostered constitutional thought. To this end, the author explores the predominance of Islamic culture, the new issues and challenges that were introduced by globalization, the impact of nationalism in the region and the conflict with Israel.